Haemodynamic Changes in Response to Mild Acute Haemorrhage in Humans
Blood donation, a form of acute haemorrhage is an important physiologic phenomenon associated with critical cardiovascular adaptive mechanisms. We evaluated the relationship between blood donation and some cardiovascular parameters in healthy whole blood donors. Forty Four healthy blood donors were recruited at the regional blood donation center in Jos. Pulse rate, blood pressure and supine ECG reading were recorded using standard procedures before and after whole blood donation. Percentage blood loss was calculated using the Nadler’s equation. SPSS version 21 was used in all statistical tests. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. The predicted total blood volume was 4603±432ml in males and 4336±560ml in females. Percentage blood loss was 9.87±0.91% in males and 10.33±1.23% in females. A significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), PR interval and QRS duration after donation was seen. Correlation coefficient analysis between percentage blood loss and the following variables were statistically significant; PR (r=0.32, p=0.043), VR (r=0.41, p=0.006), QTc (r=0.43, p=0.003) and QRS duration (r=0.48, p=0.01). Linear regression analysis between percentage blood loss in the following were statistically significant; VR (β=0.923, p= 0.04), PR interval (β=0.32, p=0.04) and QRS duration (β=-0.346, p=0.02). Blood donation, is associated with increase in heart rate and QTc interval, decrease in PR interval and QRS duration suggestive of sympatho-excitation of the cardiovascular system initiated by the potent baroreflex mechanism. This observation is an indication that electrocardiograpic changes predisposing to cardiac arrhythmias may occur quite early in acute mild haemorrhage.
Copyright (c) 2019 Yilgwan G, Idah OV, Dmi SN, Rabiu AM, Wale HR , Galam NZ, Dimka LY, Adamu G, Sabo AM
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